Identification and reduction of systemic disease secondary to COPD and comorbidities

Categorizing patients with COPD in a way that takes account of their comorbidities is going to be important in the future.

There is a recognition that COPD is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, which cannot be explained simply by smoking.1 COPD is associated with an increased risk of developing lung cancer,2 and several complications associated with COPD can be anticipated from its known biological effects. In patients with advanced disease, a low arterial oxygen tension will promote the development of pulmonary hypertension and secondary polycythaemia, while inactivity is associated with muscle wasting.3


  1. Sin DD, Anthonisen NR, Soriano JB, et al. Mortality in COPD: role of comorbidities. Eur Respir J 2006;28:1245-57.
  2. Turner MC, Chen Y, Krewski D, et al. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with lung cancer mortality in a prospective study of never smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2007;176:285-90.
  3. Debigare R, Marquis K, Cote CH, et al. Catabolic/anabolic balance and muscle wasting in patients with COPD. Chest 2003;124:83-9.

Inflammation in COPD

Learn more about the central role of inflammation in COPD.Go

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